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Note: Only the underlined, linked portions (see below table of contents) of the Lake Source Cooling Environmental Impact Statement are available on this website. The full document can be found at the Tompkins County Public Library, 312 North Cayuga Street, Ithaca, NY 14850; Cornell Engineering Library, Carpenter Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853; and NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Environmental Permits, 1285 Fisher Avenue, Cortland, NY 13045-1090. Please contact the Cornell Environmental Health and Safety Office,  for more information.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT
LAKE SOURCE COOLING
CORNELL UNIVERSITY

TABLE OF CONTENTS


VOLUME I - INTRODUCTION


  • Executive Summary
  • Table of Contents for Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS)
  • Chapter Summaries
  • Glossary of Terms
  • Abbreviations
  • Units of Measure
  • Regulations
  • Cornell Center for the Environment Findings
  • Scoping Comments
  • Distribution List
  • Responses to Comments Made During Adequacy Review (including Draft NYSDEC Permits and DEC Findings Statement)
  • Responses to Comments Made During Public Review (to be inserted)

VOLUME II - CHAPTERS 1 THROUGH 7


CHAPTER 1 - DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED PROJECT

Summary

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.1.1 SCOPE OF THIS DOCUMENT
1.1.2 GENERAL PROJECT LOCATION

1.2 PROJECT PURPOSE, NEEDS, AND BENEFITS

1.2.1 DESCRIPTION OF LAKE SOURCE COOLING

1.2.1.1 Conceptual Design
1.2.1.2 Hypolimnetic Water as a Renewable Resource
1.2.1.3 Pipelines (Aquatic and Terrestrial)
1.2.1.4 Building and Equipment
1.2.1.5 Intake and Outfall Structures

1.2.2 PUBLIC NEED FOR THE PROJECT
1.2.3 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROPOSED ACTION

1.2.3.1 Reduce Use of Ozone-Depleting Chemicals
1.2.3.2 Decrease Electricity Use and Associated Fossil Fuel Use and Emissions
1.2.3.3 Provide a Reliable, Cost-Effective Cooling System for Cornell University

1.2.4 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF THE PROPOSED ACTION

1.2.4.1 Infrastructure Improvements: Roadways, Sidewalks, Utilities
1.2.4.2 Opportunity for Ithaca School District to Utilize the LSC System
1.2.4.3 Construction-Related Economic Benefits

1.3 LOCATION

1.3.1 GEOGRAPHIC BOUNDARIES OF THE PROJECT
1.3.2 EXISTING LAND USE AND ZONING

1.3.2.1 Heat Exchange Facility Site
1.3.2.2 Pipeline Corridor

1.4 DESIGN AND LAYOUT

1.4.1 HEAT EXCHANGE FACILITY

1.4.1.1 Total Site Area
1.4.1.2 Structures

1.4.1.2.1 Building Size and Layout
1.4.1.2.2 Site Plans and Views
1.4.1.2.3 Materials Storage
1.4.1.2.4 Stormwater Drainage Plans
1.4.1.2.5 Cross-Section of Lake Piping at Shoreline

1.4.1.3 Parking

1.4.1.3.1 Paved Areas
1.4.1.3.2 Number of Parking Spaces and Layout

1.4.2 PIPELINE CORRIDOR (TERRESTRIAL)

1.4.2.1 Volume of Soil to be Excavated/Removed
1.4.2.2 Location and Conceptual Design of the Fall Creek Crossing

1.4.3 PIPELINE CORRIDOR (AQUATIC) 1-48

1.4.3.1 Dimension of Dredged Area
1.4.3.2 Plan for Dredge Spoil Disposal
1.4.3.3 Intake Structure
1.4.3.4 Outfall Diffuser

1.5 CONSTRUCTION

1.5.1 TOTAL ANTICIPATED CONSTRUCTION PERIOD
1.5.2 ANTICIPATED SCHEDULE OF CONSTRUCTION
1.5.3 MATERIALS STORAGE DURING CONSTRUCTION
1.5.4 STORMWATER DRAINAGE STRATEGY DURING CONSTRUCTION
1.5.5 CONTRACTOR HEALTH AND SAFETY PLAN PREPARATION

1.6 OPERATION

1.6.1 TESTING
1.6.2 START-UP
1.6.3 TYPE OF OPERATION
1.6.4 SCHEDULE OF OPERATION

1.7 APPROVALS

1.7.1 JOINT APPLICATION FOR U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS/NYS DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION PERMITS

1.7.1.1 ARTICLE 15, TITLE 5, 6 NYCRR PART 608

1.7.1.1.1 Disturbance of Protected Streams (Section 608.2)
1.7.1.1.2 Water Quality Certification (Section 608.7; also Title IV, Section 401 of the Clean Water Act, as amended by the Water Quality Act of 1987, Public Law 100-4)
1.7.1.1.3 Excavation or Placement of Fill in Navigable Waters (Section 608.5)

1.7.1.2 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Section 10 Permit (Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, Section 10)
1.7.1.3 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Section 404 Permit (Clean Water Act, Section 404)

1.7.2 GENERAL PERMIT FOR STORMWATER DISCHARGES FROM CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES (Article 17, Titles 7 and 8, and Article 70 of the New York State Environmental Conservation Law; Section 402 of the Clean Water Act)

1.7.3 SPDES PERMIT (NYCRR Chapter X, Subchapter A, Article 3 [SPDES] and Article 2, Part 704 [Thermal Discharges])

1.7.4 NYSDEC WATER WITHDRAWAL REGISTRATION

1.7.5 UNDERWATER LAND EASEMENT (Public Lands Law, Articles 2 and 6)

1.7.6 NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (NYSDOT) HIGHWAY CROSSING PERMIT (17 NYCRR Parts 126 and 131)

1.7.7 CITY OF ITHACA STREET OPENING PERMIT (Ithaca Code, Article IV)

1.7.8 TOWN OF ITHACA SITE PLAN APPROVAL (Zoning Ordinance, Article IX)

1.7.9 TOWN OF ITHACA SLUD CREATION

1.7.10 ARTICLE 15, TITLE 27, 6 NYCRR PART 666 (Wild, Scenic, and Recreational Rivers)

1.7.11 APPROVALS FOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY

1.7.12 BUILDING PERMIT 

CHAPTER 2 - NATURAL RESOURCES

Section 2.1 - GEOLOGY AND SOILS

Summary

2.1.1 LAKE BOTTOM SEDIMENTS

2.1.1.1 Environmental Setting

2.1.1.1.1 Texture (Particle Size Distribution)
2.1.1.1.2 Chemical Composition
2.1.1.1.3 Geotechnical Properties
2.1.1.1.4 Bathymetry Along Pipeline Routes

2.1.1.2 Impacts of Proposed Action

2.1.1.2.1 Installation of Intake and Outfall Pipelines Along the Lake Bottom
2.1.1.2.2 Disposal of Dredge Spoils
2.1.1.2.3 Turbidity Induced by LSC Intake
2.1.1.2.4 Turbidity Induced by LSC Outfall

2.1.1.3 Mitigating Measures

2.1.1.3.1 Burial of Intake and Outfall Pipelines in Shallow Water
2.1.1.3.2 Plan for Construction in Lake
2.1.1.3.3 Dredge Spoils Disposal Plan
2.1.1.3.4 Intake Orientation and Velocity to Prevent Sediment Entrainment
2.1.1.3.5 Outfall Design to Prevent Bottom Scouring

2.1.1.4 Unavoidable Impacts

2.1.2 FACILITY SITE

2.1.2.1 Environmental Setting

2.1.2.1.1 Physical Properties
2.1.2.1.2 Soil Types
2.1.2.1.3 Chemical Properties of Surficial Soils
2.1.2.1.4 Earthquake Potential

2.1.2.2 Impacts of Proposed Action

2.1.2.2.1 Site Topography
2.1.2.2.2 Chemical Content of Surface Soils
2.1.2.2.3 Erosion Potential

2.1.2.3 Mitigating Measures

2.1.2.3.1 Stormwater Management and Erosion Control
2.1.2.3.2 Soil Contingency Plan
2.1.2.3.3 Site Restoration

2.1.2.4 Unavoidable Impacts

2.1.3 CHILLED WATER PIPELINE ROUTE

2.1.3.1 Environmental Setting

2.1.3.1.1 Composition and Thickness of Underlying Materials
2.1.3.1.2 Earthquake Potential
2.1.3.1.3 Map of Soil Types
2.1.3.1.4 Physical Properties

2.1.3.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action

2.1.3.2.1 Pipeline Route Topography
2.1.3.2.2 Chemical Content of Surface Soils
2.1.3.2.3 Erosion Potential

2.1.3.3 Mitigating Measures

2.1.3.3.1 Construction and Reclamation Techniques to Minimize Subsurface Impacts
2.1.3.3.2 Site Restoration Plan

2.1.3.4 Unavoidable Impacts

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table No.

2.1-1 1994 Frozen Sediment Core Laboratory Test Results From Site P4
2.1-2 Trace Metals Concentrations - Soils Samples
2.1-3 Soil Disturbance During Construction


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.

2.1-1 Spatial Extent of LSC Dredge Area
2.1-2 Full Survey Plan View Bathymetry Contours
2.1-3 Full Survey Plan View Bathymetry Color Contours
2.1-4 Full Survey 3-D Perspective Bathymetry with Backscatter Contours
2.1-5 Site Location Map
2.1-6 Surficial Geology
2.1-7 Bedrock Geology
2.1-8 Soil Associations
2.1-9 Depth to Bedrock at Heat Exchange Facility Site
2.1-10 New York State Seismic Zones
2.1-11 Seismic Activity, 1970-1979
2.1-12 HEF Site and Soil Disposal Area Topography After Construction

 

LIST OF RELEVANT APPENDICES

Appendix

C-8 Hydrothermal Modeling
C-12 Sediment Quality Investigations
C-15 Geotechnical Appendix
C-16 Stormwater Management and Erosion Control

2.2 GROUNDWATER
Summary

2.2.1 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING

2.2.1.1 Regional Aquifers and Recharge Areas

2.2.1.1.1 Depth of Water Table
2.2.1.1.2 Seasonal Variability
2.2.1.1.3 Quality
2.2.1.1.4 Quantity

2.2.1.2 Uses of Groundwater (Public and Private)

2.2.2 IMPACTS OF PROPOSED PROJECT

2.2.2.1 Construction at Lakeshore Facilities
2.2.2.2 Construction Along the Pipeline Corridor

2.2.3 MITIGATING MEASURES

2.2.4 UNAVOIDABLE IMPACTS

2.3 SURFACE WATER: CAYUGA LAKE

SECTION 2.3.1 - ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING

2.3.1 Environmental Setting

2.3.1.1 Classification and Designated Use
2.3.1.2 Human Uses of Cayuga Lake, Public and Private
2.3.1.3 Watershed Characteristics

2.3.1.3.1 Description of the Cayuga Lake Watershed
2.3.1.3.2 Tributary Flows and Hydraulic Retention Time

2.3.1.4 Morphometric Characteristics and Biotic Habitat
2.3.1.5 Water Chemistry, Nutrients, Trophic State, and Dissolved Oxygen
2.3.1.6 Food Web

LIST OF TABLES

Table No.

2.3.1-1 Summary of Cayuga Lakes Morphometric Characteristics
2.3.1-2 Classification and Designated Best Use of Cayuga Lake (Reference 6 NYCRR 898.4)
2.3.1-3 Industrial and Municipal Wastewater Discharges to Cayuga Lake
2.3.1-4 Land Use Within the Cayuga Lake Watershed, 1971 and Current Conditions
2.3.1-5 Watershed Area of Major Cayuga Lake Tributaries
2.3.1-6 Summary of Monthly Historical Average Tributary Flows, Southern Cayuga Lake Basin
2.3.1-7 Means, Medians, and Ranges for Water Chemistry Field Data Collected During the LSC Field Investigations, 1994-1996
2.3.1-8 Summary of Summer Average Trophic State Data, Cayuga Lake, New York

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.

2.3.1-1 Classification of Cayuga Lake
2.3.1-2 Cayuga Lake Watershed
2.3.1-3 Average Monthly Streamflow, Fall Creek
2.3.1-4 Bathymetry of Cayuga Lake
2.3.1-5 Volume of Cayuga Lake with Depth, Late Summer Conditions
2.3.1-6 DO, Temperature, and Percent Saturation Profiles with Depth, Station S11, 8/22/95
2.3.1-7 Isopleths of Temperature and DO at S11, April 25 to November 13, 1995
2.3.1-8 Annual Average Cl Concentrations in Cayuga Lake, 1965-1988
2.3.1-9 Turbidity and TSS Data, Intake and Outfall Region, 1994-1996

2.3.2 THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS
Summary

2.3.2.1 Existing Conditions

2.3.2.1.1 Heat Budget
2.3.2.1.2 Stratification and Mixing
2.3.2.1.3 Hydrodynamic Motions

2.3.2.1.3.1 Wind-Induced Drift
2.3.2.1.3.2 Internal Seiche Oscillations
2.3.2.1.3.3 Internal Wave

2.3.2.1.4 Sources of Natural Variation in Cayuga Lake Water Temperatures

2.3.2.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action

2.3.2.2.1 Lakewide Impacts: Heat Budget

2.3.2.2.1.1 Model Structure
2.3.2.2.1.2 Model Inputs
2.3.2.2.1.3 Model Verification
2.3.2.2.1.4 Results of 10-Year Simulation Modeling

2.3.2.2.2 Lakewide Impacts: Variability in Water Temperature
2.3.2.2.3 Lakewide Impacts: Stratification and Mixing
2.3.2.2.4 Potential Impacts of Global Warming
2.3.2.2.5 Water Temperatures in the Outfall Region
2.3.2.2.6 Sensitivity Analysis
2.3.2.2.7 Impact on Ice Cover

2.3.2.3 Mitigating Measures
2.3.2.4 Unavoidable Impacts

LIST OF TABLES

Table No.

2.3.2-1 Annual Heat Budget, Cayuga Lake
2.3.2-2 Average Monthly Heat Storage Per Unit Surface Area J/M2, Without the LSC Operation
2.3.2-3 Average Temperature and Standard Deviation Recorded by Thermistors at S11, 1995 and 1996
2.3.2-4 Mean Standard Deviation and Root Mean Square of the Temperature Difference (Computed Minus Observed) for the S11 Thermographs for the 1995 Record
2.3.2-5 Difference in Temperature (C) Between Intake Segment and Uplake Segment by Depth and Month
2.3.2-6 Difference in Temperature (C) at the Model Segment Containing the LSC Outfall by Depth and Month, With and Without LSC
2.3.2-7 Difference in Temperature (C) at Model Segment Containing LSC Intake by Depth and Month, With and Without LSC
2.3.2-8 Difference in Temperature (C) at an Uplake Segment by Depth and Month, With and Without LSC
2.3.2-9 Values Entered in Multiport Diffuser Modeling CORMIX2 with Maximum Design Flows
2.3.2-10 CORMIX2 Output, Final Design Case with Maximum Design Flows
2.3.2-11 Plume Temperature, Results of Analysis of Sensitivity to Ambient Current Velocity
2.3.2-12 LSC Monthly Heat Rejection Rate, Contribution to Monthly Heat Storage, and Comparison to Monthly Heat Storage

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.

2.3.2-1 Comparison of the LSC Outfall Temperature to Average Epilimnion Temperature
2.3.2-2 Average Delta Heat Storage Per Month in Cayuga Lake Without LSC
2.3.2-3 Representative Temperature Profiles at Station S11, 1995
2.3.2-4 Time Series of Observed 1995 Temperatures at Station S11
2.3.2-5 Frequency Spectrum Plot From Observed Time Series of Temperature at 20m
2.3.2-6 Comparison of Temperatures at 1-Meter Depth at P2 and S11, 1995
2.3.2-7 Surface Map Showing Longitudinal Segments and Other Features
2.3.2-8 Longitudinal-Vertical Grid of Cayuga Lake
2.3.2-9 Time Series of Modeled Temperatures at Station S11
2.3.2-10 Frequency Spectrum Plot From Modeled Time Series of Temperature at 20m
2.3.2-11 Time Series of Differences at LSC Discharge Segment, May 1992
2.3.2-12 Time Series of Differences at LSC Discharge Segment, August 1992
2.3.2-13 Time Series of Differences at LSC Discharge Segment, October 1989
2.3.2-14 Time Series of Differences at LSC Intake Segment, May 1992
2.3.2-15 Time Series of Differences at LSC Intake Segment, August 1992
2.3.2-16 Time Series of Differences at LSC Intake Segment, October 1989
2.3.2-17 Time Series of Differences at Uplake Segment, May 1992
2.3.2-18 Time Series of Differences at Uplake Segment, August 1992
2.3.2-19 Time Series of Differences at Uplake Segment, October 1989
2.3.2-20 Thermal Profile at S11, With and Without LSC, May 1992
2.3.2-21 Thermal Profile at S11, With and Without LSC, August 1992
2.3.2-22 Thermal Profile at S11, With and Without LSC, October 1989
2.3.2-23A-I Approximate Extent of Selected Thermal Plumes (April - Winter)

 

LIST OF RELEVANT APPENDICES

Appendix

C-8 Hydrothermal Modeling
C-9 CORMIX Analysis
C-10 Continuous Water Temperature Monitoring, 1994-1996

2.3.3 PHOSPHORUS AND PRODUCTIVITY
Summary

2.3.3.1 Introduction
2.3.3.2 Existing Conditions

2.3.3.2.1 TP and SRP Concentrations

2.3.3.2.1.1 Summer Average Epilimnetic TP
2.3.3.2.1.2 Winter TP
2.3.3.2.1.3 Profiles of Phosphorus Concentration with Depth

2.3.3.2.2 Phytoplankton

2.3.3.2.2.1 Annual Succession of the Phytoplankton Community
2.3.3.2.2.2 Chlorophyll a Measurements
2.3.3.2.2.3 Phytoplankton Species Composition and Biovolume

2.3.3.2.3 Macrophytes (Rooted Aquatic Plants and Algae)

2.3.3.3 Impacts of the Proposed Action

2.3.3.3.1 Projected Changes in Phosphorus Load and Concentration

2.3.3.3.1.1 Total Phosphrus Budget

2.3.3.3.1.1.1 Wastewater Phosphorus
2.3.3.3.1.1.2 Tributary Phosphorus
2.3.3.3.1.1.3 LSC Phosphorus
2.3.3.3.1.1.4 Summary Budget

2.3.3.3.1.2 SRP Concentrations in the Outfall Region
2.3.3.3.1.3 Sensitivity Analysis

2.3.3.3.2 Projected Secondary Effects on Water Quality

2.3.3.3.2.1 Potential Effect on Water Clarity
2.3.3.3.2.2 Potential Impacts on Dissolved Oxygen Depletion

2.3.3.3.3 Projected Biological Impacts

2.3.3.3.3.1 Short-Term (Construction Phase)
2.3.3.3.3.2 Long-Term (Operations Phase)

2.3.3.3.3.2.1 Phytoplankton and Chlorophyll
2.3.3.3.3.2.2 N:P Ratio
2.3.3.3.3.2.3 Water Temperature
2.3.3.3.3.2.4 Macrophytes

2.3.3.4 Mitigating Measures
2.3.3.5 Unavoidable Impacts

2.3.3.5.1 Short-Term Impacts
2.3.3.5.2 Long-Term Impacts

LIST OF TABLES

Table No.

2.3.3-1 Historical and Recent Measurements of Summer and Winter Epilimnetic TP
2.3.3-2 Total P and Soluble Reactive P Concentrations and Ratio, Beginning and End of Stratified Period - 1994-1996 TP, 1995-1996 SRP
2.3.3-3 Soluble Reactive Phosphorus (µg/l) During 1968-1969
2.3.3-4 Soluble Reactive P (µg/l) Measured in 1974 at Myers Point
2.3.3-5 Summer Average Chlorophyll a Concentration, Epilimnion
2.3.3-6 Phytoplankton Taxa Found in Cayuga Lake
2.3.3-7 Rooted Aquatic Plant Species Found in Cayuga Lake Since 1987
2.3.3-8 Summary of Input Values - Fall Creek and Cayuga Inlet Total Soluble Phosphorus Loads
2.3.3-9 LSC Total Phosphorus Budget
2.3.3-10 Southern Cayuga Lake Total Phosphorus Budget (Stratified Period)
2.3.3-11 Values Entered in Multiport Diffuser Model CORMIX2 with Maximum Design Flows
2.3.3-12 Soluble Reactive Phosphorus Mixing Summary from CORMIX2 with Maximum Design Flows
2.3.3-13 Plume Soluble Reactive Phosphorus, Results of Analysis of Sensitivity to Ambient Current Velocity
2.3.3-14 NYSDEC Trophic Status Indicator Parameters Measured at Stations P2, P4, and S11, 1994-1996
2.3.3-15 Calculated Secondary Water Quality Impacts of Increased Phosphorus Loading: Impact on DO depletion of Hypolimnion
2.3.3-16 Projected Nitrogen: Phosphorus Ratios

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.

2.3.3-1 Regression of Winter Total P and Summer Chlorophyll a, Deep Finger Lakes
2.3.3-2 Soluble Reactive Phosphorus Profiles at Station S11, 1995-1996
2.3.3-3 Total Phosphorus Profiles at Station S11, 1995-1996
2.3.3-4 Chlorophyll a in 1994-1996 at P2 (0 to 4M Depth) and P4/S11 (0 to 10M Depth)
2.3.3-5 Seasonal Phytoplankton Dominance by Biovolume at P2, 1996
2.3.3-6 Seasonal Phytoplankton Dominance by Biovolume at P2, 1994-1996
2.3.3-7 Projected Phosphorus Budget, Southern Cayuga Lake Basin
2.3.3-8A Approximate Extent of SRP Plume in June
2.3.3-8B Approximate Extent of SRP Plume in July
2.3.3-8C Approximate Extent of SRP Plume in August
2.3.3-8D Approximate Extent of SRP Plume in September
2.3.3-8E Approximate Extent of SRP Plume in October
2.3.3-9 Regression Chlorophyll a and Secchi Disk Transparency, 1994-1996
2.3.3-10 Projected N:P Ratios With and Without LSC, Outfall Near-Field Region
2.3.3-11 Temperature - Growth Curves for Major Algal Groups

LIST OF RELEVANT APPENDICES

Appendix

C-1 Water Quality Investigations, 1994-1996
C-9 CORMIX Analysis
C-13 Phosphorus Budget Analysis, Southern Cayuga Lake

2.3.4 MYSIS RELICTA
Summary

2.3.4.1 Introduction
2.3.4.2 Objectives and Approach of the LSC Field Investigations

2.3.4.2.1 Hydroacoustic Surveys
2.3.4.2.2 Verification of Hydroacoustic Data with Net Data

2.3.4.3 Findings of the LSC Field Investigations

2.3.4.3.1 Life History of M. relicta in Cayuga Lake
2.3.4.3.2 Lakewide Distribution and Abundance of Cayuga Lake M. relicta

2.3.4.3.2.1 1995 Lakewide Survey Results
2.3.4.3.2.2 1996 Lakewide Survey Results

2.3.4.3.3 Vertical Distribution of M. relicta in the Water Column

2.3.4.3.3.1 Daytime Distribution of M. relicta

2.3.4.3.3.1.1 Light Extinction Through the Water Column
2.3.4.3.3.1.2 Spectral Sensitivity of M. relicta
2.3.4.3.3.1.3 Depth Distribution as a Function of Light

2.3.4.3.3.2 Diurnal Migration

2.3.4.3.4 Response to Artificial Light

2.3.4.3.4.1 Response to Artificial Light of Different Intensity
2.3.4.3.4.2 Response to Artificial Light in Benthic Region
2.3.4.3.4.3 Long-Term Response to Artificial Light in Benthic Region

2.3.4.4 Impacts of the Proposed Action
2.3.4.5 Mitigating Measures
2.3.4.6 Unavoidable Impacts

LIST OF TABLES

Table No.

2.3.4-1 Summary of Field Activities
2.3.4-2 Comparison of Hydroacoustic Data, August and September 1995 Lakewide Survey
2.3.4-3 Statistical Analyses of Mysis relicta Lakewide Distribution
2.3.4-4 Depth and Light Levels of Daytime Distribution of Mysis relicta
2.3.4-5 Wavelength-Specific Extinction Coefficients as Measured by UFI at Station S11, June 20, 1996
2.3.4-6 Percent of Hypolimnion Withdrawn by LSC (Permit Conditions)

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.

2.3.4-1 Representative Drawing of Mysis relicta
2.3.4-2 Comparison of Sv to Net Samples (Density)
2.3.4-3 Comparison of Sv to Net Samples (Biomass)
2.3.4-4 Size Distribution and Growth of Mysis relicta in Cayuga Lake
2.3.4-5 Transect Locations
2.3.4-6 Lakewide Survey - September 5, 1995
2.3.4-7 Lakewide Survey - September 7, 1995
2.3.4-8 Average Sv-Aug. 95 & Sept. 95 Lakewide Survey
2.3.4-9 Comparison of 1995 Lakewide Survey Strata Means
2.3.4-10 Comparison of 1996 Lakewide Survey Stratum Means (All Transects Included)
2.3.4-11 Comparison of 1996 Lakewide Survey Stratum Means
2.3.4-12 Thermal Profile at S11, June 20, 1996
2.3.4-13 Depth-Specific Irradiance - Cayuga Lake
2.3.4-14 Mysis relicta Daytime Distribution Stratified Lake Survey
2.3.4-15 Mysis relicta Daytime Distribution Unstratified Lake Survey
2.3.4-16 Diurnal Study - Station S11
2.3.4-17 Light Experiment, Light On
2.3.4-18 Benthic Light Experiment, Light On
2.3.4-19 Long-Term Benthic-Light Experiment
2.3.4-20 Lake Water Intake Structure Design Perspective View

 

LIST OF RELEVANT APPENDICES

Appendix

C-2 Mysis relicta

2.3.5 LAKE SEDIMENTS
Summary

2.3.5.1 Existing Conditions

2.3.5.1.1 Regulatory Approaches to Sediment Quality and Disposal Options

2.3.5.1.1.1 Federal Guidelines
2.3.5.1.1.2 New York State Guidelines

2.3.5.1.2 Results of 1994 and 1996 Sediment Quality Investigations

2.3.5.1.2.1 1994 Sediment Investigation
2.3.5.1.2.2 1996 Sediment Investigation

2.3.5.1.2.2.1 NYSDEC Sediment Screening Guidance
2.3.5.1.2.2.2 Split-Spoon Core Samples - Analysis by Quanterra, Inc.
2.3.5.1.2.2.3 Hand Core Samples - Analysis by Battelle Marine Sciences Lab

2.3.5.1.3 Results of Other Sediment Investigations
2.3.5.1.4 Results of Biological Investigations in the Littoral Zone

2.3.5.1.4.1 Benthic Invertebrates
2.3.5.1.4.2 Rooted Aquatic Plants and Algae (Macrophytes)

2.3.5.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action

2.3.5.2.1 Spatial Extent of the Excavated Region
2.3.5.2.2 Physical Impacts
2.3.5.2.3 Chemical Impacts
2.3.5.2.4 Biotic Impacts

2.3.5.2.4.1 Benthic Invertebrates
2.3.5.2.4.2 Rooted Aquatic Plants and Algae (Macrophytes)
2.3.5.2.4.3 Toxicity to Water Column Organisms
2.3.5.2.4.4 Impacts on Drinking Water

2.3.5.3 Mitigating Measures

2.3.5.3.1 Turbidity Minimization During Construction
2.3.5.3.2 Material Handling Procedures

2.3.5.4 Unavoidable Impacts

LIST OF TABLES

Table No.

2.3.5-1 Results of Metal Analyses, Lake Sediments, Cayuga Lake, New York, Summer 1994
2.3.5-2 Comparison of 6- and 10-Foot Core 1996 Sediment Sampling Results from Quanterra (Organic Compounds) to NYSDEC Criteria
2.3.5-3 Comparison of 6- and 10-Foot Core 1996 Sediment Sampling Results (Metals) to NYSDEC Criteria
2.3.5-4 Estimated Concentrations of Metals in Cayuga Lake Sediments to be Excavated
2.3.5-5 Comparison of 1-Meter Core 1996 Sediment Sampling Results (Organic Compounds) to NYSDEC Criteria
2.3.5-6 Comparison of 1-Meter Core 1996 Sediment Sampling Results (Metals) to NYSDEC Criteria
2.3.5-7 Benthic Invertebrate Taxa Found at the South End of Cayuga Lake, New York, July 22, 1994
2.3.5-8 Zooplankton Taxa Found in Cayuga Lake, New York, Summer 1994
2.3.5-9 Chemical Speciation of Trace Metals in Cayuga Lake Water, as Predicted by Chemical Equilibrium Calculations

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.

2.3.5-1 Spatial Extent of LSC Dredging Area
2.3.5-2 1994 Environmental Investigation Sampling Sites
2.3.5-3 Sediment Sampling Points: Cayuga Lake, New York
2.3.5-4 Residences That May Draw Drinking Water From Cayuga Lake
2.3.5-5 Silt Curtain Detail

 

LIST OF RELEVANT APPENDICES

Appendix

C-12 Sediment Quality Investigations

2.3.6 ZEBRA AND QUAGGA MUSSEL CONTROL MEASURES
Summary

2.3.6.1 Existing Conditions

2.3.6.1.1 Distribution and Abundance of Dreissena
2.3.6.1.2 Status of Dreissena in the Cayuga Lake Ecosystem
2.3.6.1.3 Life Cycle of Mussels
2.3.6.1.4 Implications for the LSC System

2.3.6.2 Impacts of Proposed Action

2.3.6.2.1 Change in Habitat
2.3.6.2.2 Mussel Control Practices

2.3.6.2.2.1 Proposed Mussel Control Strategy for LSC

2.3.6.2.2.1.1 Pipeline Pigging
2.3.6.2.2.1.2 Thermal Treatment
2.3.6.2.2.1.3 Manual Cleaning
2.3.6.2.2.1.4 Coatings

2.3.6.2.2.2 Regulatory Procedures for Mussel Control Strategies

2.3.6.2.2.2.1 Pipeline Pigging
2.3.6.2.2.2.2 Thermal Treatment
2.3.6.2.2.2.3 Manual Cleaning
2.3.6.2.2.2.4 Coatings
2.3.6.2.2.2.5 Future Regulatory Issues

2.3.6.2.3 Impacts of Mussel Control Practices on Uses of Cayuga Lake

2.3.6.3 Mitigating Measures
2.3.6.4 Unavoidable Impacts

LIST OF TABLES

Table No.

2.3.6-1 Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Distribution
2.3.6-2 1995 Mussel Colonization Experiments, Station S11 Results
2.3.6-3 Available Mussel Control Strategies

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.

2.3.6-1 Mussel Substrate Test Apparatus
2.3.6-2 Mussel Study Locations

2.3.7 CAYUGA LAKE FISH COMMUNITY
Summary

2.3.7.1 Existing Conditions

2.3.7.1.1 Deep Water Fish Community (Intake Area): Reproductive and Thermal Requirements

2.3.7.1.1.1 Lake Trout
2.3.7.1.1.2 Rainbow Trout
2.3.7.1.1.3 Brown Trout
2.3.7.1.1.4 Atlantic (Landlocked) Salmon
2.3.7.1.1.5 Alewife
2.3.7.1.1.6 Rainbow Smelt
2.3.7.1.1.7 Troutperch
2.3.7.1.1.8 Slimy Sculpin
2.3.7.1.1.9 Cisco

2.3.7.1.2 Littoral Zone Fish Community (Outfall Area): Reproductive and Thermal Requirements

2.3.7.1.2.1 Smallmouth Bass
2.3.7.1.2.2 Other Species

2.3.7.1.3 Distribution of Fish in Cayuga Lake

2.3.7.2 Impacts of the Proposed Action

2.3.7.2.1 Impacts on the Profundal Zone Fish Community

2.3.7.2.1.1 Velocity Field of Influence
2.3.7.2.1.2 Velocity in Relation to Swimming Speed of Fish
2.3.7.2.1.3 Attraction of Fish to the Lighted Intake

2.3.7.2.2 Impacts on the Littoral Zone Fish Community